Bumbuna Hydro Electric Environmental
And Social Management Project
Hydro Energy Policy
H & T Infrastructure
E & S Management
EAU (Emergency Action Unit)
Expression of Interests
Frequently Asked Questions
Social Issues FAQs
Environmental Issues FAQs
What is the Bumbuna Hydroelectric Project?
How will the Bumbuna Hydroelectric Project benefit Sierra Leone?
How will the benefits of the BHP be shared?
What is the history of the Bumbuna project?
How much did the BHP cost?
Why is the World Bank involved in the BHP?
What is the power situation in Sierra Leone?
How much electricity does the BHP generate?
What impact will the BHP have on tariffs?
When was the BHP completed?
Who operates the BHP?
How was the BHP identified and selected?
What other alternatives does Sierra Leone have for power generation?
How will resettlement and compensations be handled?
How many people are directly affected by the BHP?
How will BHP affect communities living in the reservoir catchment area?
How will BHP affect communities living downstream?
What will be the impact of the BHP on the population living in Freetown and in other towns concerned by the project?
Is it safe to live under the Bumbuna transmission line?
How are the concerns, opinions and interest of the different stakeholders raised and taken into account?
How and to whom can interested stakeholders voice their concerns or obtain more information about the BHP?
Will any wildlife or natural habitats be affected by the BHP?
How will biodiversity be protected?
What will be the impact on fisheries and fish fauna?
What are the major environmental effects in the downstream area?
How the BHP impact climate change (locally and globally)?
Q1. What is the Bumbuna Hydroelectric Project?
The Bumbuna dam is a run-of-river hydropower complex, located in Sierra Leone on the upper reaches of the Seli (Rokel) river in the valleys of the Sula Mountains in the Tonkolili district of Sierra Leone, about 200 km northeast of the capital city Freetown. The project was 85% complete when construction works were suspended in May 1997 due to the conflict raging in the country. The objective of the Bumbuna Hydroelectric Project (BHP) is to provide adequate reliable and affordable power to the Western Area of the country, including the capital Freetown. The BHP will meet the current energy demands at the lowest possible cost and in a sustainable manner and will stimulate economic growth on the Western Area, where much of Sierra Leone’s commerce, light industry, government and non-agriculture employment is located. BHP is also the cornerstone of the power sector strategy to interconnect provincial towns in the remote Northern Province, including Bumbuna Township, Makeni/Magburaka, Port Loko/Lunsar, Kambia, and Lungi. The project consists of: an 88 m high rockfill dam with an asphalted concrete upstream face; a 50 MW power station located at the toe of the dam, housing two 25 MW turbine-generator units of 25 MW each; a transmission system consisting of 200 kilometers of 161 kV transmission line from the power station to Freetown and a substation in Freetown to feed power into the Western Area grid; a separate power service to Makeni, Lunsar and Port Loko will be provided. The Y shaped narrow reservoir, that will form behind the dam, will be 30 km long in the main stem of the reservoir and the two upstream branches will be 11 and 7 kilometers long, respectively. At full supply level the reservoir volume will be 445 million m3. The BHP is the first stage of a larger potential hydropower development sequence in the Seli River that has total development potential of 275 MW.
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Q2. How will the Bumbuna Hydroelectric Project benefit Sierra Leone?
The BHP can greatly improve the power situation by providing a reliable supply of energy that would meet nearly the entire current electricity needs of the Western Area, including Freetown, at the lowest possible cost and in a sustainable manner. Moreover, the electricity generated by the BHP will service new towns such as Makeni, which is now connected to Bumbuna power and Lunsar and Port Loko, which are currently not connected to the power grid. It is expected that BHP will contribute to economic development and improved quality of life for the people of Sierra Leone, while reducing the country‘s dependence on fuel oil imports. Households will finally enjoy reliable supply of electricity at a lower cost, and national industry and small businesses will benefit from reduced production costs due to lower tariffs for electricity, with overall benefits to the economy through increased employment. The BHP will also relieve the country of the burden of expanding foreign exchange earnings to purchase fossil fuel, improving the national balance of payments. Moreover, the greenhouse effect and the emission of other polluting gases will be significantly reduced. Finally, the availability of electricity will lead to substantial improvements in the health and education sectors. As an example, hospitals will have a reliable supply of energy, and children will be able to study after sunset.
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Q3. How will the benefits of the BHP be shared?
Consumers in Freetown will receive power supply as well as consumers in the provincial towns of Makeni, Lunsar and Port Loko. Village houses in the town of Bumbuna, immediately downstream of the dam, will also be provided with power supply. Other methods for sharing the monetary benefits of the hydroelectric generation that Bumbuna will provide have been discussed with the “host communities” for the project, who live in the reservoir and catchment area of the dam and immediately downstream of the dam. For the project affected communities, the BHP also includes a Stabilized Agriculture Program and a Livelihood Assessment and Income Restoration Program, which are, as part of the Dam/Reservoir Resettlement Action Plan, intended to promote agricultural improvements and soil and forest conservation initiatives. Extension services will be closely linked to the project implementation to raise agricultural productivity and rural incomes (e.g., training in crop husbandry techniques; basic soil and water management, such as agro-forestry, alley cropping along the contours; basic farm management techniques; harvesting and post-harvest techniques; and the use and care of farm tools, etc.) In this regard, the BHP includes provision for a Bumbuna Watershed Management Plan (BWMP). This includes a land management strategy and action plan with several components to promote agricultural improvement and soil and forest conservation. Extension services will be closely linked to the project implementation to raise agricultural productivity and rural incomes (e.g., training in crop husbandry techniques; basic soil and water management, such as agro-forestry, alley cropping along the contours; basic farm management techniques; harvesting and post-harvest techniques; and the use and care of farm tools, etc.) There is also a fisheries program. In addition the BHP incorporates the Upper Seli Community Development Initiative to provide communities in three districts in the reservoir area who are not directly impacted by the construction or reservoir inundation with non-power benefits. These benefits are in the form of grants to pay for community roads, education and health facilities, as well as life skills and vocational training for youth and women. These activities will be implemented at the community level and will be selected and implemented through community-driven development approaches. To ensure that the benefit-sharing arrangements are sustainable in the long term, a Trust will be established, provisionally called the “Bumbuna Trust”. This will continue and expand the programs for the delivery of non-power benefit using the Community Driven Development(CDD) arrangements tested during the Upper Seli Community Development Initiative. The Trust would receive funds from the Netherlands Clean Development Facility, and other financing sources, such as a portion of the electricity tariff paid into the Trust. Financing for a Bumbuna Watershed Management Authority and Conservation Authority will also be considered in the set up of the Trust.
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Q4. What is the history of the Bumbuna project?
The Bumbuna site was first identified in 1970 in the first national hydropower inventory prepared by UNDP. The BHP was originally designed as a government-owned project with five potential development phases, and a combined capacity of 275 MW. The project was originally contracted to Salini Costruttori S.p.A. (Salcost) of Italy. Site preparation works began in 1982 and were interrupted in 1984, due to financial constraints that forced the Government to scale down the first stage of the project to today’s 50 MW capacity. After the feasibility study was prepared in 1980, the World Bank considered the project very ambitious and financially risky for Sierra Leone. Thus, in 1984, a scaled-down version was designed to reduce costs. That design has been largely retained today and it does not preclude the subsequent stages of the original Seli River Development Scheme with total development potential of 275 MW. Civil works for the project started in 1989 with funding from the Government of Italy (GOI), but were stopped in 1993 when these funds were exhausted. In 1993, the African Development Bank (AfDB) provided financing for the supply of electromechanical equipment and for the construction of a 161 kV transmission line to Freetown. The civil works resumed in February 1996 with additional funding from AfDB. By May 1997, the project was 85% complete when works were interrupted by civil war. Following the return of peace, the Government of Sierra Leone (GoSL) wished to restart the project and requested support from the donor community. In September 2003, at the fourth meeting of the Sierra Leone Development Partnership Committee, GoSL, GOI, AfDB, the OPEC Fund, and the World Bank (IDA) agreed on a financing plan to complete the project. This plan included commercial bank financing to be backed by an IDA partial risk guarantee (PRG). At a May 2004 Donors Meeting, these arrangements were strengthened when the GOI announced that it had completed its internal processing to provide EUR 18 million for the project.
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Q5. How much did the BHP cost?
The total project cost was estimated to be US$ 91.8 million.
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Q6. Why is the World Bank involved in the BHP?
The World Bank is involved in the BHP to help mobilize resources and coordinate donor support; to promote public-private partnerships in developing and operating the project; and to develop customized risk mitigation instruments under the partial risk guarantee to attract private sector financing for the project. The partial risk guarantee is intended to facilitate entry of direct foreign investment by mitigating sovereign risks by raising international confidence in Sierra Leone’s political and economic situation. This would then open the door to further investment. Political instability and security concerns pose investment risks, and are therefore a major concern for investors, particularly in a post-conflict environment. A World Bank partial risk guarantee would help catalyze private sector financing by reducing risk to potential investors and signaling that the project is financially sound. The Word Bank also ensures the application of sound environmental and social safeguards to mitigate negative impacts of infrastructure projects on the environment and on local communities. The participation of the World Bank will help ensure that these safeguards are applied to protect the environment and to restore living conditions of the local communities. Also, additional funding is being requested to support the Upper Seli Community Development Initiative tailored to providing education, health facilities, and vocational training. Finally, the World Bank promotes the participation of all stakeholders in the project’s decision-making process by providing technical assistance and funding aimed at setting up two-way communication mechanisms and carrying out grassroots activities in order to ensure proper and timely information dissemination and transparency of the process.
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Q7. What is the power situation in Sierra Leone?
Much of the countries power generation capacity was damaged or destroyed lost during the war. Sierra Leone’s current power supply situation is characterized by daily massive blackouts and very high losses. In the Freetown peninsula, electricity supply is available to customers only for a few hours every week. Most areas in the interior of the country are wholly or largely without power. This has a negative impact on the quality of life of Sierra Leonean citizens and severely constrains the ability of small businesses and national industry to recover and provide jobs. In provincial centers, fuel supply constraints and resulting power shortages have crippled the effective functioning of health and water supply facilities About 90% of Sierra Leone’s electricity is consumed in the country's four main cities: Freetown, Kenema, Bo and Makeni. Sierra Leone power generation is heavily dependent on fuel oil imports and vulnerable to price fluctuations. Freetown’s electricity supply comes from the oil-powered Kingtom generating station, which is in poor condition and is extremely polluting. A lack of foreign exchange and heavy debts to oil companies has led to frequent fuel shortages and severe tariff increases.
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Q8. How much electricity does the BHP generate?
The installed capacity of the first stage is 50 MW. However, this capacity can be fully exploited only during the rainy season from May to November. During the dry season when the river flows are reduced, the BHP will be able to produce 18 MW at a constant rate. Thermal generation will therefore be required to supplement hydropower in the dry season. The average annual generation at Bumbuna will be 290 GW. Once the second stage of the “Seli River Development Scheme” is implemented -- which will involve construction of an upstream seasonal regulation reservoir -- the Bumbuna reservoir will remain “rim full” all year, which will allow it to produce at full capacity year round.
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Q9. What impact will the BHP have on tariffs?
Sierra Leone has one of the highest tariffs in the world for grid power due to its dependency on imported oil. In comparison, the BHP’s cost of generation will be lower. BHP will, therefore, help reduce the overall cost of electricity production, leading to a decrease in tariffs in the longer term. In addition, tariffs would be more stable, as they would not be subject to fluctuations in international oil prices. The current average bulk cost of thermal electricity generation is US¢ 26/kWh. The project would bring down the average cost of bulk power to between US¢5.9 and US¢8.7/kWh (delivered to Freetown)
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Q10. When was the BHP completed?
The project was completed and commissioned in November 2009.Works on the powerhouse, and the transmission system started in June 2005. According to the schedule, a test filling of 50% of the reservoir was carried out during the rainy season of 2006. Full inundation was carried out in December 2006. The project was expected to be complete by the end of 2007 which did not materialize because of change of Government and the availability of funds and manpower.
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Q11. Who operates the BHP?
The Ministry of Energy and Water Resources (MEWR) will enter into a concession agreement with the soon to be established Bumbuna Hydroelectric Company (BHC) that will be responsible for the development, construction, financing, implementation, and operation of the BHP. The desire of the donors and GoSL to implement the BHP as a Public Private Partnership (PPP) was made possible by private sector participation and the balanced sharing of the project risks and rewards. The BHC is primarily a “not-for-profit” vehicle for: (a) bridging the project’s financing gap by enabling commercial lenders to benefit from the coverage of an IDA PRG; (b) providing a vehicle for the safe private sector completion, operation and maintenance of the project; and (c) establishing and supervising an elaborate “lockbox” mechanism for a rigorous collection and allocation of the revenues produced by the sale of electricity by the National Power Authority (NPA), the state-owned power utility, through a “waterfall” mechanism agreed among all parties in the project. The Bumbuna Project Management Unit (PMU), within the MEWR, will have overall management responsibility for the implementation of the Environmental Management Plan and the Resettlement Action Plans. See Question #22 for further information on institutional arrangements.
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Q12. How was the BHP identified and selected?
The Bumbuna site was first identified in 1970 in the hydropower inventory prepared by UNDP, where twenty-two potential sites for hydropower were identified. Preliminary design and cost estimates were prepared to rank the sites in order of economic merit. It was concluded that development of Bumbuna Falls offered the most attractive option for power supply for the Western Area grid on the basis of hydrology, head and geo-technical characteristics. The feasibility studies and subsequent studies prepared by the donor community throughout the late 1980’s and 1990’s have confirmed that the present scaled-down version of Bumbuna is the least-costly option compared with alternatives, including generation based on other hydro options, imported oil, and coal. In the Power Master Plan (1996) additional comparisons were made with other renewable energy sources and conversion technologies including biomass, solar and wind. Further studies of small hydro options have also been prepared for off-grid supply.
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Q13. What other alternatives does Sierra Leone have for power generation?
Sierra Leone’s main indigenous renewable resources suitable for electricity production are hydropower, biomass, and solar. Sierra Leone has limited non-commercial quantities of coal and as yet no proven oil or gas reserves. Government is interested in exploration for petroleum resources in the coastal area. Biomass has future potential, especially to replace diesel generation at isolated provincial centres. The theoretical potential has been estimated at up to 2 million tonnes of oil equivalent, mainly from agricultural waste and crop residues. Forest regeneration is another potential biomass source. Most energy assessments consider wind generation as having moderate site-specific potential in Sierra Leone. Wind velocities (as in many tropical countries) are generally low, averaging about 2-5 m/s, and are largely confined to 3 months of the year. Solar has large technical potential and even if presently it is uneconomical for grid-applications, it has immediate potential for stand-alone solar PV homes in rural areas to supply small but vital electricity services and small-scale generation in rural remote areas distant from the grid. In the future, regional connection of grids in the West African power pool is envisaged.
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Q14. How will resettlement and compensations be handled?
The World Bank policy on Involuntary Resettlement (4.12) requires that people who are adversely affected by project activities receive compensation to the extent that their livelihoods are restored to at least the pre-project level. Principally, compensation will be made in-kind and all aspects will be taken into account, including loss or damage to structures and other property, access to roads and other public services, access to natural resources (including forests and river resources), crops and farmland, and all other losses associated with income generating activities. Two resettlement and compensation plans have been prepared, one for the reservoir and dam area and one for the transmission line area. Teams of social scientists and surveyors have been sent to the field to estimate the impact on people and property, land and crops, and access to forest and river resources, including cultural property such as graves, sacred sites and monuments. The teams have prepared individual/household/community compensation arrangements as documented in the Resettlement Action Plans, with full participation of the affected people. The compensation arrangements have been agreed in contracts with each affected household and community is been implemented by the project Resettlement Implementation Team. Village Resettlement Committees to represent community members has also been created and legal counsel will be provided continuously throughout the process. In addition to the RAP team, a Witness NGO will be responsible for monitoring the specific activities as well as social and environmental panel of experts.
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Q15. How many people are directly affected by the BHP?
The identification of communities and the determination of impact have been carried out by using three methodologies: laser images, GPS and socio-economic survey. The results for the dam and reservoir area conclude that only one village, comprising 16 households (135 people), will need to be physically relocated. Thirty-two additional villages will lose portions of their land to various degrees. Specifically, 17 villages will lose a smaller portion of their land, 14 villages will lose considerably more, and one village will lose almost all of its land. Although it has been determined that the houses in this village will not be affected, they may nevertheless need to relocate depending on where their new land will be located. Four villages were also impacted during the years of construction of the dam, the construction camp, the quarry and the access roads. These four villages have not yet received compensation for the land which was lost due to construction works. In agreement with the four villages, this impact will be compensated for by communal compensation. Of the 367 structures that have been identified in the transmission line Right of Way (the Right of Way is 15 meters on each side below the transmission centre line) only a total of 6 structures have roofs that are within a height of seven meters from the conductors. These are four houses, one block of a secondary school, and one traditional thatched roof house. The six structures will be relocated in order to meet the seven meters minimum electro-magnetic field clearance.
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Q16. How will BHP affect communities living in the reservoir catchment area?
The impact of the BHP on the communities which are located in the wider catchment area will be minor. The communities directly affected by the reservoir will lose a substantial part of their farmland; the wider catchment area is therefore likely to suffer from increased pressure on land. On the other hand, the water-table will rise and promote cash-crop gardening during the dry season. The large volume of water in the reservoir may also provide opportunities for introduction of fish species and thereby encourage fishing and fish-farming activities. Moreover, the reservoir will facilitate transportation of people and goods by boat between neighboring villages. There is a risk that the prevalence rates of intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzias) might increase, as well as the prevalence rate of malaria. However, the prevalence of river blindness (onchocerciasis) will likely decrease due to the inundation of a number of rapids in the reservoir area. The project will strengthen the public health infrastructure in the project area to adequately mitigate these health risks and in general improve the health of the local people.
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Q17. How will BHP affect communities living downstream?
Since the river flow will only be slightly affected, (i.e. the amount and flow of the river will increase rather than decrease) it is anticipated that the impact on downstream communities will be negligible.
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Q18. What will be the impact of the BHP on the population living in Freetown and in other towns concerned by the project?
The impact of the BHP on the population living in Freetown and in other towns which will be supplied with electricity, produced by this project, will be extremely positive. First, the population will benefit from the availability of a reliable and affordable electricity supply and the resulting economic development. Secondly, streetlights and reduced emissions will make Freetown a safer city with a healthier environment.
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Q19. Is it safe to live under the Bumbuna transmission line?
In recognition of the ongoing debate in the international research community about electric fields around transmission lines and potential health effects, in the past decade many countries have adopted international guidance on limiting exposure to these effects. The strength of these effects decline as the distance from the conductor increases. For the Bumbuna line, the provision of a minimum seven meters clearance between the conductor and buildings for general safety also ensures the exposure levels remain well within the guidance of the International Commission Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for electromagnetic field effects and meet even the most stringent emerging guidance in the European Union The existing houses and land uses under the transmission line will be permitted to remain in the 30m Right Of Way (ROW), with the exception of those houses within seven meters of the electrical conductors. The minimum clearances are established for safety reasons (e.g. to prevent flashovers and reduce the chance of accidental contact with conductors). To ensure public safety the towers and conductors for the Bumbuna transmission line were designed for climatic conditions in Sierra Leone. The tower foundations are designed for site-specific geology to international standards. Additional measures are also to be taken such as welding bolts on the lower sections of the towers to prevent theft and vandalism. Provisions are needed to control any future alteration to existing structures or new building and land development in the right-of-way, such that the minimum clearances are always maintained.
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Q20. How are the concerns, opinions and interest of the different stakeholders raised and taken into account?
The government of Sierra Leone (GoSL) is using communication to build support for the project and enhance stakeholder participation. The GoSL has put in place a communication process aimed at establishing a transparent and continuous dialogue between the different actors and enabling active interaction among all stakeholders involved. A comprehensive communication audit which assessed stakeholder perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs vis-à-vis Bumbuna and the power sector reform was carried out. This audit led to the development of a comprehensive Communication Action Plan (CAP). The CAP is providing adequate and timely information to all stakeholders, promoting transparency; raising the level of participation by all stakeholders in the decision-making process, and ensuring that the development opportunities linked to the project are fully understood and exploited. Several consultations were conducted as part of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Resettlement Action Plans (RAP’s) studies, with plans made for further consultations as the project is complete and is being operated. Both environmental and social studies were designed with the active involvement of all affected communities and a Public Consultation and Disclosure Plan (PCDP) was prepared in order to discuss the scope and results of the EIA and RAP’s. In addition to consultations, stakeholders were involved in the ongoing initiatives aimed at information sharing, such as public talks with selected audiences in Freetown, public meetings in councils and district councils, production of radio programs at the national and regional level, creation of a community radio in Bumbuna and production of informational materials.
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Q21. How and to whom can interested stakeholders voice their concerns or obtain more information about the BHP?
The need to establish a mechanism for consultation at and beyond project completion has resulted in the establishment of Community Liaison Committees as discussed during public consultations. The Committee will be the venue for initiating the grievance procedure (which are described in the RAP’s). An independent organization, a “Witness NGO”, will be monitoring the resettlement and compensation process and a legal counsel will be available to assist project affected people at all times The Project Management Unit has a Communication Unit whose task is to ensure timely and accurate information dissemination and transparency of the process by making sure that the development opportunities linked to the project are fully understood and exploited by affected stakeholders. Any individual or organization willing to express an opinion, concern or complaint can contact the PMU Communication Unit by telephone: +232-33 636179 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org or can visit the office located on the 5th floor of Electricity House in Freetown, Sierra Leone. For additional information log on to www.bumbuna.sl
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Q22. Will any wildlife or natural habitats be affected by the BHP?
The main environmental impacts caused by the reservoir are related to the clearance and inundation of the riparian (gallery) forests along the Seli River. These riparian forests are under heavy human pressure and they would disappear within 10 to 20 years without a well-designed intervention. The project provides an opportunity to protect the remaining forests in the wider project area. For this reason an Environmental Offset called Bumbuna Conservation Area has been established as compensation for lost natural habitat, as required by the World Bank's Natural Habitat Policy OP 4.04. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) identified the presence of some chimpanzee communities in the wider reservoir area. The chimpanzee is an endangered species. The riparian forests may be home to some of the chimpanzee communities, although there are no indications that the chimpanzees use the project area as a nesting place. They may, however, use the riparian forest for feeding. The chimpanzees’ natural habitat has already been threatened considerably by the expansion of farmlands and by the technique of "slash and burn” used by local farmers, and they are the object of intense hunting. Continued baseline monitoring of the chimpanzee population in the wider reservoir area will be carried out to better design mitigation measures for their protection.
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Q23. How will biodiversity be protected?
The BHP offers an opportunity to protect the biodiversity in the wider Bumbuna reservoir area by creating the Bumbuna Conservation Area and by inclusion of strong conservation measures in the management of the Bumbuna Watershed surrounding the reservoir area. The actions will be financed from a levy on the electricity tariff, which will provide sustainable financing for biodiversity conservation. The project will also finance mitigation measures to protect the remaining chimpanzee communities, other primates, and other wildlife to preserve biodiversity in the wider reservoir area. As a mitigation measure, the remaining chimpanzee communities will be protected by the establishment of a Bumbuna Conservation Area of approximately 17 km2 and by including strong wildlife and conservation measures in the Bumbuna Watershed Management Plan. Because of the impoundment of the reservoir, people and chimpanzees will likely be squeezed on a smaller area, which causes the so-called habitat squeeze. This habitat squeeze will further decrease the sustainability of the present agricultural shifting cultivation system and will increase the pressure on the chimpanzee habitat. The project will finance the development and implementation of a Land Management Strategy and Action Plan, a Land and Soil Management Program, an Agroforesty and Forestry Program and an Agricultural Development Program for the Bumbuna Watershed. The potential for ecotourism development will be studied and an action plan developed. These activities will be executed by the Bumbuna Watershed Management Authority (BWMA) and financed through the establishment of a Bumbuna Watershed Management Trust Fund, partly financed from the electricity tariff (3%), to fund the activities of the Authority.
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Q24. What will be the impact on fisheries and fish fauna?
Impacts on the fish fauna as a consequence of dam closure and the impoundment of the reservoir are expected to be limited. Present data indicates that the Seli River does not contain any endemic or endangered fish species. The impacts of the dam closure on the fish faunas downstream, in the reservoir area, and upstream of the reservoir will be moderate, since no true migratory fish species have been identified. Downstream and upstream fish faunas are largely similar. The fish fauna in the reservoir area will adapt from riverine to lake conditions, a process that has been observed in many manmade lakes in Africa. This change is often beneficial for the local fishermen and should increase catches and income from fisheries. Also, a larger standing water body will provide opportunities for fisheries development. A monitoring plan has been designed in order to provide a tool for fisheries management. The EMP includes a downstream and reservoir fisheries management program
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Q25. What are the major environmental effects in the downstream area?
The environmental effects downstream are mainly linked to changes in the river flows, which will slightly increase during dry season and have a beneficial effect by avoiding severe reductions in the river area that occur naturally. Rainy season impacts will not be significant as peak flood flows (Sept-Nov) and downstream inundation and hydrology will not change. The annual filling of the reservoir will result in some changes in the hydrological regime of the Seli River downstream of the dam although this change is not significant. Reservoir operation will regulate flow in the river resulting in an increase in flow during the dry season, and a reduced flow for the first few weeks of the rainy season. The higher flows during the dry season will provide opportunities for downstream irrigation development.
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Q26. How the BHP impact climate change (locally and globally)?
The BHP will have no observable impact on local or global climate change, because the area to be inundated will be too small to exert such an impact. The project’s most significant global environmental contribution will come from the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by displacing the use of diesel generating power plant through hydroelectric power. Although methane emissions will be generated, their effect will be more than compensated through the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. For example, in the first full year of operation (2008) CO2 emissions are estimated to be reduced by 136,000 tons of CO2 equivalent, and methane emissions are estimated to be increased by 17,000 tons of CO2 equivalent. The net reduction from Bumbuna is thus estimated to amount to 119,000 tons of CO2 equivalent. This has important implications for Sierra Leone’s contribution to the Kyoto Protocol and longer term benefits for international carbon trading. The revenue generated from the sale of carbon credits is evaluated at the unit price of US$4 per ton of CO2, which is the expected value at which the carbon credits may be sold on the carbon market. This leads to credits in 2008 of US$ 530,000 and reaches US$ 620,000 in the year 2012. The total NPV of carbon credits is in the order of US$ 2.17 million. Carbon credits are only attributed from the onset of operation of the hydroelectric dam until the end of the crediting period under the Kyoto Protocol, which is 2012.
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Results & Achievements
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Bumbuna Project compensates 347 Project Affected Persons(PAPs) .
The Resettlement Unit of the Bumbuna Project has ended a compensation exercise for 347 individuals affected by the operations of the Bumbuna Project.<
Bumbuna Project Launches New Website
The Bumbuna Project has launched its project website at a ceremony held at the Conference room of the Ministry of Energy and Water Resou
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